A qualitative study led by CREDOC in March 2004, on 26 mother-daughter duos, confirms that the majority of the time, mothers are the ones who introduce their daughters to cooking and to flavours. What’s less intuitive, however, is that these initial basics in cooking will form the dietary habits of girls during their lifetime: lots will continue to feed and cook “like mum”, even after they’ve left the family home…
The first thing the study shows is that while mothers introduce their daughters to cooking, the process of transmitting information is rarely conscious: mothers don’t ”teach” their daughters to cook, instead they make dishes in front of them and allow them to stir a mixture, add spices, etc. While mothers themselves had to help out during their childhood, especially in large families, they haven’t imposed this on their daughters, for whom learning about cooking is done as they go along and not through voluntarist teaching. It’s by watching and imitating that young girls take their first steps in cooking: “With my kids, I did the same as my mum did with me: I didn’t ask them to help, they just got involved if they wanted to,” tells one of the girls.
For some decades, studies have shown that people who are considered to be physically beautiful are at an advantage in a number of areas, both private and professional. Three recent books confirm this trend by showing that beauty has become a major factor in building a career… but they disagree about the measures to take to wipe out this discrimination.
Source : The Economist.
Beauty facilitates life: this isn’t a dubious statement but a postulate that has been scientifically proven on several occasions. Since 1974, Mr Efran showed in his study « The effect of physical appearance on the judgment of guilt, interpersonal attraction, and severity of recommended punishment in a simulated jury task » that ugly-looking defendants are more severely punished during a trial than those who are considered beautiful. Likewise, attractive-looking people are more likely to gain a place in a queue, benefit from help when they need it, etc.
In the professional field as well, the influence of physical appearance has been recognised for several decades. In 1981, Mr Solomon showed, with supporting experiences, that job applicants’ clothes were often a decisive factor in recruitment (“Dress for success: Clothing Appropriateness and the Efficacy of Role Behavior”).
Meet Dr. Marcel Saucet, Marketing, associate professor and researcher at the University of San Diego. He heads LCAconseil.net laboratory, expert advice in marketing innovation.
What do you think are the most promising innovations aimed at women sectors?
Cosmetics: During the last 15 years, cosmetics are one of the few sectors of growth. Recent studies have shown the average market growth of 5% in terms of quantity. We can compare cosmetics to new technologies and indeed, this is an area that does continually evolve, and the products become obsolete very quickly as it lacks in the innovation in products, ideas and in the distribution. New beauty box, Birchbox allow consumers to test several beauty products every month when they get subscribed.
Another innovation in the way we distribute with the Lush brand that offers cosmetics for women: Once a year, magazine sellers are clients and little interest except that of the view by itself and thus attract new consumers. Cosmetics are also changing rapidly with new technologies. The case for example, companies that specialize in makeup that offer their clients to test new makeup applications via augmented reality. While you are alone in front of your phone without makeup, applying a clear picture of who you are made up!
Summer is arriving, and already your breasts are attracting attention, whether you reveal them discreetly or openly. Emblems of femininity, breasts are simultaneously, objects of desire, stallions of youth, feeding organs, a question of politics… “No other body part has been fetishized as much as women’s breasts; they are seen as the most immediate object of desire in contemporary America. Omnipresent, they live in our imagination as the most powerful and totemic symbol of femininity” writes the journalist Alex Kuczynski, author of ‘Beauty Junkies’ (2006) (1). But how does the history breasts teach us about the evolution of women’s lives?
The World Cup is without a doubt one of the most popular topics of conversation brought to us this early summer. But what attitude will women bear in regards to this traditionally masculine sport? The aufeminin.com website and its Womenology lab have led a survey with 782 respondents in France and in Germany. Here are the results! (1)
And 1,2,3…86% of women watch football
Contrarily to the macho tweets that one can read on Twitter, men are not the only people to like football. 86% of the women interviewed stated that they watch football matches on TV. If however for the majority, this practice proves only to be occasional (64%), 23% clearly affirm that they “love football and watch every match of the season”. German women prove to be especially passionate, with 26% of the respondents loving football, compared with only 17% of French women deeming the same commitment.
In the 1970’s, pornographic movies were broadcasted without restraint in cinemas; however, with the introduction of the Giscard law in 1975, the general view began to change towards these erotic productions. By 1990, almost all pornographic cinema halls had disappeared, this also being the result of other factors, such as the invention of the VHS cassette tape. Eroticism has thus moved from the public sphere into the private sphere. With the rise of the internet, the pornographic world has seen a rebirth amongst the shelter of households or behind computer screens, in which one can watch whatever they please under an incognito disguise. Do men and women watch the same amount of porn? Do they watch these films for the same reasons? Does the newer generation of women appreciate pornographic films more than their elders? The Womenology marketing lab from the aufeminin.com group has led an exclusive survey with 2302 respondents in order to answer these questions. (1)
Shopping is generally thought of as a typically feminine activity and female consumers have gained the reputation of being shopaholics! However, we are now seeing a number of changes. The economic situation in France has become more complicated in recent years, purchasing power is a worry for many households, and new technology is evolving … How are women responding to these changes? What shopping habits do they have in 2013? Have their expectations and attitudes changed? Are Smartphones and e-commerce now an integral part of their purchases?
In answer to these questions, in June 2013, Unibail-Rodamco launched a Shopping Observatory, in partnership with Ipsos, to try and understand French women and their shopping patterns, their motivations, what holds them back, their indulgences, as well as future trends. (1)
Women show a growing interest in mobile Internet, as revealed by a Médiamétrie study in November 2012. At that time, they represented 43.7% of people connected to a website or a mobile phone application. This number is steadily increasing, and there are 1 million additional women who are connected to the Internet using a mobile phone compared to November 2011. Furthermore, this increase is greater than the average for mobile users (13% for women against 9% for all mobile users).
An increasing rate of possession
One explanation for this phenomenon lies in the fact that women are more likely to own a Smartphone. In the third quarter of 2012, 49.4% (*) of women using a mobile phone were equipped with a Smartphone, against 39.5% in H1 2012.
In July 2013, Kantar Media published a study entitled « Portraits of Women » which demonstrated that, contrary to popular belief, European women have a more rational than emotional relationship with brands. To what extent has the female European consumer changed? What impact has « social networking » had on female buyers? What new challenges are brands facing? The survey, conducted by the TGI Department for Consumer Insight and carried out in several countries including France, Spain, Germany and England, focused on these issues. (1)
« Rational” brands surpass « emotional » brands
Until now, focusing on aspirational and sentimental factors was a definite asset in brand communication campaigns. However, in recent years, female European consumers have begun to question the emotional factor involved in their relationship with brands.
In a changing socio-economic climate faced with new challenges (environmental, societal, etc..), consumers are longer drawn in by « emotional” factors. They want pragmatism. In 2013, only 13% of European women bought products whose values they share, whilst 26% did so in 2006. To echo this, 48% now usually choose the cheapest products, compared with 43% in 2006. What’s more, whilst 57% liked everything new in 2006, this figure has fallen to 46% today.
More surprisingly, they are now less likely to pay more for additive free products, whether it makes life easier or even because it is of good quality (57% in 2006 compared to 52% in 2013). They are, it would seem, more difficult to convince.