In December 2012, the Cabinet Promise Consulting Inc., in partnership with the Huffingtonpost.fr, unveiled the list of the favourite fragrances of French women and French men, for themselves and the ones to offer as a present…
According to this Dior study, Dior J’adore, Miss Dior and Chanel No. 5 prance in the ranking of the most popular fragrances for women. As for the ranking of perfumes that men prefer to offer to women, it is dominated by Chanel No. 5, Dior J’adore and GUERLAIN Shalimar. Through these results, we observe that the large luxury homes maintain a mix between tradition and modernity. They impose their historical fragrances, even though the fragrance market is characterized by introducing new products at a rapid pace.
The 10 most popular women’s fragrances
Renault presented its new citadine ZOE to the public at the Paris Motor Show. Newest member of the Z.E range, which has to date three other electric vehicles, including its famous Twizy, has as ambassadors David and Cathy Guetta. Renault ZOE will be marketed late in 2012.
ZOE: a green car
This 5 seats citadine, 100% electric, is designed for daily use (given that 71% * of women use their car every day) with an ecological dimension. Because it is very quiet and emits no carbon emissions.
Its design was very neat and clean to please women. According to Renault the design of the car makes you think of an endearing pet, when you look at ZOE it feels as if she is smiling.
« The maternal function in humans is not at all natural; it is a completely social construction, defined and organized by building standards according to the needs of a population specific to a given time in history, » says historian Yvonne Knibiehler. (1) Indeed, the history of maternity consists of several major phases which demonstrate the evolution of contemporary issues regarding the status of the mother, and more generally the role of women in society. This article traces the milestones identified by Yvonne Knibiehler in her book “History of mothers and motherhood in the West”.
Antiquity created the mother in the shadow of the father
During the Ancient Greek era, the word « motherhood » did not exist. However, the maternal figure is very apparent in myths, even if it is sometimes undervalued when, for example, the gods refuse to acknowledge the true process of childbirth (Zeus giving birth to Athena himself). Often, motherhood is simply associated with nature and harvest. The anger of a Goddess deprived of her daughter can, in these beliefs, can result in a degradation of wheat fields.
Leading care Market Company in France, Clarins is closer to the concerns of women and their beauty.
The brand of cosmetic avant-gardist is naturally associated with the aufeminin.com website to carry out an in-depth international study on « women and beauty. »
As part of the investigation, « Observatory of Beauty », 10,175 internet users were interviewed in France, Belgium, Austria, Canada, Spain, Germany, Italy, UK and Switzerland, to understand better what beauty is for women today.
What is the Observatory of Clarins Beauty-aufeminin?
The Observatory Beauty is part of the « Beauty » dedicated space on the aufeminin.com website where researchers Clarins put their expertise at the service of women. To date, the Clarins experts have already started to play the game of question and response during trois chats paneuropéens. A new international chat is scheduled for November.
France: a « gender studies-ophobe » country
In December 2012, two deputies from the political party UMP, Virginie Duby-Muller and Xavier Breton, requested a “investigation commission on the introduction and the diffusion of the gender theory in France”. This fear of the notion of “gender” is not recent in France. Since the beginnings of the theories on the social relationships between men and women in the United States (1960), the scientific world and the French academy have demonstrated an apprehension in using the term “gender”. For many years, the expression “social relationship between sexes”, although untranslatable in other countries, has been privileged.
Why this taboo around “gender studies”?
It is due to the fact that radical American feminism continues to systematically associate “gender” and denunciation of masculine domination. Despite the new themes and new issues put forward by the LGBT (Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Transsexuals) and men’s studies movement, the “gender” discipline remains victim of prejudice. “Gender studies” are thought to be centered only on women, their theories homogenous, essentially militant and not mixed.
In June 2011, the program “Presage de Sciences Po” was put in place to fight against the bad reputation on researches on “gender”.
PRESAGE: legitimize and insert “gender studies” in France
The Research and Teaching Program on Gender, co-developed with OFCE, aims to insert a reflection on gender on all the activities of Sciences Po: teaching, research and on continuing education.
Several characteristics illustrate the willingness of this program to legitimize a new image on “gender studies”:
Since gender norms were challenged by feminist movements in the 60s, subsequent changes have affected the status of women in society. However, despite numerous equality movements, it seems that the image of the « feminist » has deteriorated over the years. How can we explain this stigma surrounding feminism? In an article from the book « New gender boundaries, the issue of the public/ private divide,” researcher Anne-Claire Emo looks for an answer to this question. (1)
Feminism in figures
According to a survey conducted by Harris Interactive in October 2011, 55% of French women define themselves to be « feminists. »However, only 7% of the women surveyed consider themselves to be « strongly feminist. » For the other 48% of respondents claiming to be feminists, the response « rather feminist » almost certainly implies a sense of belonging rather than a real activist conviction. (2)
In recent decades, a profound change troubles the boundaries of gender, partly triggered by the emancipation of women. This disruption of genders finds its apotheosis in the figure of the androgynous aesthetic, used by some brands in their communication strategy. This model of beauty carries the contemporary values of our time.
Socio-historical perspective about gender evolution
In the past, the gender was governed by strict standards; individuals couldn’t take personal position. From Ancient Greece to the 18th century, the large institutions: Church, Family, State, was the ones disclosing the major codes to follow. Individual behaviour, gender roles, simply stemmed and arbitrarily the biological sex of individuals arose.
Since the French Revolution, amongst other, new values have emerged in Western society, those of freedom and equality. This is the era of modernity. Individualism has become the backbone of everyday life.
Previously, a framework governed the individuals’ behaviour, now they are faced with their personal choices about their lives in which they are in charge.
The gender that can be defined as a social and historically construction, framed by traditional standards, is particularly impacted by this new situation. Gender identities, that is to say, masculinity and femininity, may appear illegitimate in a modern society essentially egalitarian, where everyone defends its interests and own identity.
For many years now, automakers have been trying to attract women; they do this by expanding their product offers and developing their designs, those range between rounded design, colour variations, sales of electric cars and many more. In order to decrypt the special relationship women have with this traditionally male sector, Yoann Demoli, PhD in Sociology, specialist in automotive offers closer look. (1)
Do women and men have the same look on cars?
When we asked if they enjoy driving, women respond twice as often as men that they do not like to drive. If getting older makes men less likely to enjoy getting behind the wheel, it does not seem like a decisive factor for women: their dislike of driving seems independent from the age, however, men and women mostly say that they love to drive (75%).
Men and women have different uses of cars. Looking at the indicator of the distance travelled by each gender, we see that men drive about 20% more than women on average. Such differences are found between all individuals, even if their course or their demographics characteristics are very different.
Given the very different qualities of men and women’s car fleet, I think that men and women differently weigh what they can expect from a car (comfort object, subject of achievement, aesthetic object or utility object).
In France, brands are protected by the intellectual property law from counterfeit. The trademark registration is done by the INPI. But what is the role of the women in this important step? Do they lay as many brands as men? Do women lay more feminine brands than men? What links can be established between the feminine target and a trademark, the sex of a brand applicant, and his gender?
History of trademarks by women
Women have been very invisible in the world of entrepreneurship and testimony of brands for a long time. « Women are paid less than their male colleagues. They are more exposed to precarious employment and unemployment and have less access to positions of responsibility. In the field of entrepreneurship, women are vastly underrepresented. Women entrepreneurship is however a major challenge for growth and employment, « said David Kimelfeld, Vice-President of the city of Lyon (France) in charge of economic development (1).
For the past 8 years, this international contest submits the finest wines of the world to experts of oenology, vines, wines, but also to the oenophile general public, but also Media gastronomy and business professionals. The latest edition of the contest took place in Monaco in April 2013.
« Monaco, known for its international reputation was the favorite spot to host this major event, a mythical city and a source of international gastronomy » underlines Régine Le Coz, graduated oenologist, creator and initiator of five international contests in oenology. (1)